Abstract There is increasing interest in future, highly-potent ‘pan-TB’ regimens against tuberculosis (TB), that may be equally effective in both drug-susceptible and rifampicin-resistant (RR) forms of TB. Taking the example of India, the country with the world’s largest burden of TB, we show that adoption of these regimens could be: (i) epidemiologically impactful, and (ii) cost-saving to the national TB programme, even if the regimen itself is more costly than current TB treatment. Mathematical modelling suggests that deployment of a pan-TB regimen in 2022 would reduce the annual incidence of TB in 2030 by 23.9% [95% Bayesian credible intervals [CrI] 17.6–30.8%] if used to treat all TB cases, and by 2.30% [95% CrI 1.57–3.48%] if used to treat only RR-TB. Notably, with a regimen costing less than USD 359 (95% CrI 287–441), treating all diagnosed TB cases with the pan-TB regimen yielded greater cost-savings than treating just those diagnosed with RR-TB. One limitation of our approach is that it does not capture the risk of resistance to the new regimen. We discuss ways in which this risk could be mitigated using modern adherence support mechanisms, as well as drug sensitivity testing at the point of TB diagnosis, to prevent new resistant forms from becoming established. A combination of such approaches would be important for maximising the useful lifetime of any future regimen.

 

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