Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the process by which microbes develop resistance to the antimicrobial drugs commonly used to treat infections, is the underlying cause of drug-resistant
infections. In the absence of effective antimicrobial drugs, common infectious diseases are more difficult to treat and individuals remain sick for a longer time. This increases the costs of
hospitalization and treatment, the risk of spreading the disease, and the risk of death. The emergence and spread of AMR is occurring at an alarming rate with current estimates indicating that at least 700,000 people die worldwide each year due to drug-resistant infections, which is expected to rise to 10 million deaths globally by 2050. AMR is further aggravated by the fact that the emergence and spread of drug resistance far outpaces the rate at which new drugs, capable of thwarting infections, are being developed. Common diseases, such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are becoming untreatable, lifesaving medical procedures are becoming more dangerous due to the risk of infections with drug-resistant pathogens, and food security is threatened by drug resistance in agriculture.