Abstract

Background

In this study, we evaluated the genetic relatedness of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KPN) isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in August 2017, We implemented an active countermeasure to control this outbreak successfully.

Methods

The incidence of healthcare-associated ESBL-KPN bacteremia was evaluated before and after initiating enhanced infection control (IC) practices in January 2018. Surveillance cultures were set up and monitored for neonates, medical personnel, and NICU environments. Molecular analyses, including pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequence typing, and ESBL genotyping, were performed for the isolated KPN strains.

Results

After implementing the enhanced IC procedures, the healthcare-associated bacteremia rate decreased from 6.0 to 0.0 per 1000 patient-days. Samples from neonates (n = 11/15, 73.3%), medical personnel (n = 1/41, 2.4%), and medical devices and the environments (6/181, 3.3%) tested positive for ESBL-KPN in the surveillance cultures in December 2017. Active surveillance cultures revealed that 23 of 72 neonates who were screened (31.9%) were colonized with ESBL-KPN between January and March 2018. All the isolates demonstrated closely related PFGE patterns and were identified as ST307 strain carrying the CTX-M-15 gene.

Conclusions

Contaminated NICU environments and medical devices, as well as transmission by medical personnel, appeared to be the source of the outbreak of ESBL-KPN infection. We employed an enhanced IC strategy during January–March 2018 and successfully controlled the clonal outbreak of CTX-M-15-positive KPN. ST307 has emerged as an important bacteremia-causing pathogen in the NICU and should be carefully monitored.

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Citation:  Baek, E., Kim, S., Kim, S. et al. Successful control of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. BMC Infect Dis20, 166 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-4889-z