The O’Neill report on antimicrobial resistance in 2016 generated headlines around the world warning that once-trivial infections may become death sentences without drastic action.

Now, three years on, an update on progress has been published and concludes that there has been a worrying lack of progress on some of the critical recommendations from the original document, including the development of incentives for researching new antibiotics, vaccines and diagnostics.

The review’s main findings – 10 million deaths due to AMR per year by 2050 and an accumulated cost to the global economy of $100 trillion – continue to be widely cited.


Maksym Kozlenko [CC BY-SA 4.0 (], from Wikimedia Commons

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