Highlights

•    Water Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSII) in PM2.5 varied both seasonally and spatially.
•    Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium formation is favoured mainly in winter season.
•    Biomass Burning is the major source of pollution at both sub-urban and rural sites.
•    WSII contribute nearly 50% and 45.8% to PM2.5 mass at the two sites.
•    Cow dung cakes lead to maximum PM2.5 emissions.

Abstract

The present study was conducted at sub-urban and rural site of Agra. The main aim of this study was to characterize WSII in terms of spatial, seasonal and formation characteristics and identify the major sources responsible for the pollution of WSII in PM2.5 particles using different source apportionment models.

 

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Photo credit: CIAT [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons