Japanese subway stations contain five times the amount of airborne particulate matter than in the air above ground, according to a survey that has raised calls for measures against the unregulated subterranean pollutants.

Tomoaki Okuda, an associate professor of environmental science at Keio University’s Faculty of Science and Technology, and his colleagues presented the findings of their study to a symposium on air pollution in closed spaces held in May at the university, and urged relevant agencies to rectify the problem.


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