Active screening for resistant multidrug strain carriers remains an important component of infection control policy in any healthcare setting indifferent of financial and logistical costs. The objective of our study was to determine the spectrum of bacterial colonization individually among intensive care unit patients. A retrospective observational study was performed in the Intensive Care Unit of Emergency Clinical County Hospital of Oradea during 2017. Medical records of the patients were used for evaluation of source of ICU admission, previous antibiotic therapy, comorbidities, and length of hospital stay. Nasal and groin swabs for MRSA detection and rectal swabs for ESBL, VRE, and CRE detection were collected upon ICU admission of all patients in the first 24 hours and after 7 days. Swab samples were processed for isolation and identification of these resistant multidrug strains. Bacterial colonization on admission was detected in a quarter of patients included in the study. Carbapenemase-producing bacteria were the most common colonizers (21.16%). On admission, 12.06% of patients have been colonized by ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacterales. Risk factors for colonization on admission to the ICU were chronic liver diseases and chronic renal failure for ESBL infection and chronic liver disease for CRE in male patients. Evaluation of Carmeli’s score for male patients showed association only with CRE colonization. Chronic renal failure was found as risk factor for ESBL colonization in female patients. The prevalence of MRSA was 5.23% and less than 1% for VRE. There was no association between any risk factors studied and the presence of S. aureus or VRE upon admission. The 7-day ICU stay also proved to be an increased risk for ESBL and CRE infection.