The State of Rio de Janeiro stands out as having the second highest incidence and the highest mortality rate due to TB in Brazil. This study aims at identifying the factors associated with the unfavourable treatment of MDR/XDR-TB patients in that State.


Data on 2269 MDR-TB cases reported in 2000–2016 in Rio de Janeiro State were collected from the Tuberculosis Surveillance System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were run to estimate the factors associated with unfavourable outcomes (failure, default, and death) and, specifically, default and death.


The proportion of unfavourable outcomes was 41.9% among MDR-TB and 81.5% among XDR-TB. Having less than 8 years of schooling, and being an Afro-Brazilian, under 40 years old and drug user were associated with unfavourable outcome and default. Bilateral disease, HIV positive, and comorbidities were associated with death. XDR-TB cases had a 4.7-fold higher odds of an unfavourable outcome, with 29.3% of such cases being not treated for multidrug resistance in the past.


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About 30% of XDR-TB cases may have occurred by primary transmission. The high rates of failure and death in this category reflect the limitation of treatment options. This highlights the urgency to incorporate new drugs in the treatment.

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Citation: Bhering M, Duarte R, Kritski A (2019) Predictive factors for unfavourable treatment in MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 2000-2016. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0218299. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218299