New anti-infective agents are urgently needed to fight microbial resistance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are particularly responsible for complicated pathologies that are difficult to treat due to their virulence and the formation of persistent biofilms forming a complex protecting shell. Parasitic infections caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicanaare also of global concern, because of the mortality due to the low number of safe and effective treatments. Female inflorescences of hop produce specialized metabolites known for their antimicrobial effects but underexploited to fight against drug-resistant microorganisms. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial potential of phenolic compounds against MRSA clinical isolates, T. bruceiandL. mexicana. By fractionation process, we purified the major prenylated chalcones and acylphloroglucinols, which were quantified by UHPLC-UV in different plant parts, showing their higher content in the active flowers extract. Their potent antibacterial action (MIC < 1 µg/mL for the most active compound) was demonstrated against MRSA strains, through kill curves, post-antibiotic effects, anti-biofilm assays and synergy studies with antibiotics. An antiparasitic activity was also shown for some purified compounds, particularly on T. brucei (IC50 < 1 to 11 µg/mL). Their cytotoxic activity was assessed both on cancer and non-cancer human cell lines.
Bocquet, L.; Sahpaz, S.; Bonneau, N.; Beaufay, C.; Mahieux, S.; Samaillie, J.; Roumy, V.; Jacquin, J.; Bordage, S.; Hennebelle, T.; Chai, F.; Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Neut, C.; Rivière, C. Phenolic Compounds from Humulus lupulus as Natural Antimicrobial Products: New Weapons in the Fight against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma brucei Strains. Molecules 2019, 24, 1024.