Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated and health care–associated diarrhea in humans. Recurrent CDI (R-CDI) occurs in ~20%–30% of patients with CDI and results in increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Genomic analyses have shown overlap of C. difficile isolates from animals and people, suggesting that a zoonotic reservoir may contribute to recurrence. The objective of this study was to determine whether pet ownership is a risk factor for recurrence of CDI.


We conducted a case–control study among patients with recurrent CDI (cases; n = 86) and patients with nonrecurrent CDI (controls; n = 146). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between recurrence of CDI and pet ownership while accounting for patient-level risk factors.


Credit: Jennifer Oosthuizen CDC

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