MUMBAI—Debshree Lokhande recalls trying everything to get rid of her cough, including syrups, lozenges, tablets, and Ayurvedic remedies. She had just moved to a new city and started her first job, fresh out of university. But within days, she said she was vomiting up “bowlfuls” of blood, her weight was falling sharply, and she was experiencing night sweats. A chest X-ray soon revealed that she had contracted tuberculosis. In normal circumstances, TB is a treatable disease—you just need the right doctor to administer the right combination of drugs. Back then, in 2011, Lokhande would have neither.