Background

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a major problem in the management of nosocomial infections. However, ESBL-PE are not systematically monitored in African countries. The aim of this study was to determine ESBL-PE prevalence in patients from three hospitals in N’Djamena, the capital city of Chad, and to characterize the genetic origin of the observed resistance.

Methods

From January to March 2017, 313 non-duplicate isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens obtained from 1713 patients in the three main hospitals of N’Djamena. Bacterial species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Susceptibility to 28 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar, and ESBL production was confirmed with the double-disc synergy test. The most prevalent ESBL genes associated with the observed resistance were detected using multiplex PCR followed by double-stranded DNA sequencing.

Results

Among the 313 isolates, 197 belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The overall ESBL-PE prevalence was 47.72% (n = 94/197), with a higher rate among inpatients compared with outpatients (54.13% vs. 34.37%). ESBL-PE prevalence was highest in older patients (≥60 years of age). E. coli was the most common ESBL-producer organism (63.8%), followed by K. pneumoniae (21.2%). ESBL-PE were mainly found in urine samples (75%). The CTX-M-1 group was dominant (96.7% of the 94 ESBL-PE isolates, CTX-M-15 enzyme), followed by the CTX-M-9 group (4.1%). 86% of resistant isolates harbored more than one ESBL-encoding gene. ESBL production was also associated with the highest levels of resistance to non-β-lactam drugs.

Conclusions

The prevalence of ESBL-PE harboring resistant genes encoding ESBLs of the CTX-M-1 group was high (48%) among clinical isolates of three main hospitals in Chad, suggesting an alarming spread of ESBL-PE among patients.

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  • Oumar Ouchar MahamatEmail authorView ORCID ID profile,
  • Manon Lounnas,
  • Mallorie Hide,
  • Yann Dumont,
  • Abelsalam Tidjani,
  • Kadidja Kamougam,
  • Madina Abderrahmane,
  • Julio Benavides,
  • Jérôme Solassol,
  • Anne-Laure Bañuls,
  • Hélène jean-Pierre,
  • Christian Carrière and
  • Sylvain Godreuil
BMC Infectious Diseases201919:205

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3838-1

  • Received: 15 July 2018
  • Accepted: 20 February 2019
  • Published: 28 February 2019