Objective: The pathogenicity of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group C (GCS) in patients attending for an uncomplicated acute sore throat is unknown and it was the objective to clarify this. Design: Systematic literature review with meta-analysis. Setting Medline and Scopus were searched from inception to February 2019, with searches of reference lists, Subjects case-control studies stating prevalence of GCS in patients as well as healthy controls presented for children and adults separately. Studies including patients already treated with antibiotics and studies focused on patients with HIV, malignancy or immunosuppression were not included. Main outcome measures Pooled prevalence of GCS was compared between patients and controls using chi-square and was further explored by calculating the positive etiologic predictive value (P-EPV) showing the post-test probability of a link between a sore throat and the bacterial finding. P-EPV for GCS was compared with that for group A Streptococci (GAS) using figures from the same publications and patients.