•    The multi-parameter approach on sampling methods and assays allowed to assess the biorburden.
•    Toxigenic fungal species were identified by culture based-methods and detected by qPCR.
•    Aspergillus section Versicolores was identified in the resistance to azoles screening.
•    Low levels of endotoxins were observed in the environmental matrices.
•    Low to moderate cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects were found.


The bioburden in a Hospital building originates not only from patients, visitors and staff, but is also disseminated by several indoor hospital characteristics and outdoor environmental sources. This study intends to assess the exposure to bioburden in one central Hospital with a multi-approach protocol using active and passive sampling methods.


CDC/Dr. Libero Ajello (PHIL #4297), [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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