In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a shorter (9–12 month) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment regimen (as compared to the conventional 18–24 month regimen) for patients without extrapulmonary TB, pregnancy, previous second-line TB medication exposure, or drug resistance to pyrazinamide, ethambutol, kanamycin, moxifloxacin, ethionamide, or clofazimine. The recommendation was based on successful clinical trials conducted in Asia and Africa, but studies, using mainly European data, have shown few patients in higher resource settings would meet WHO eligibility criteria.

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