Humans have always lived in intimate association with arthropods that transmit pathogens between humans or from animals to humans. About 700,000 deaths due to vectorborne diseases occur globally each year, according to World Health Organization estimates. In the summer and fall of 2019, nine U.S. states have reported 36 human cases (14 of them fatal) of one of the deadliest of these diseases: eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), an arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) disease transmitted by mosquitoes. In recent years, the Americas have witnessed a steady stream of other emerging or reemerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, Zika, and Powassan, as well as increasing numbers of travel-related cases of various other arboviral infections. This year’s EEE outbreaks may thus be a harbinger of a new era of arboviral emergences.

Credit: CDC

Read more at NEJM…