Introduction

Rotavirus (RV) remains the major cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide, although the advent of vaccination has substantially decreased associated mortality [1]. Recently, we observed a 15% decrease in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Australian 0–4-year-old children following the introduction of RV vaccination [23], suggesting that RV vaccination could contribute to the primary prevention of this autoimmune disease. This finding builds on our human and animal studies implicating RV in the development of T1D in genetically susceptible children.

The first clue—Molecular mimicry

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Citation: Harrison LC, Perrett KP, Jachno K, Nolan TM, Honeyman MC (2019) Does rotavirus turn on type 1 diabetes? PLoS Pathog 15(10): e1007965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007965