Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly occurs on the inner leaf let of the host cell plasma membrane, incorporating the essential viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) within a budding lattice of HIV-1 Gag structural proteins. The mechanism by which Env incorporates into viral particles remains poorly understood. To determine the mechanism of recruitment of Env to assembly sites, we interrogate the subviral angular distribution of Env on cell-associated virus using multicolor, three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We demonstrate that, in a manner dependent on cell type and on the long cytoplasmic tail of Env, the distribution of Env is biased toward the necks of cell-associated particles. We postulate that this neck-biased distribution is regulated by vesicular retention and steric complementarity of Env during independent Gag lattice formation.