Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Isolated from Food Animal and Foodstuff May Also Be Less Susceptible to Heavy Metals.

Abstract

Salmonella enterica is a foodborne pathogen showing increasing multidrug resistance (MDR). We characterized the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genotype using microarrays in a panel of 105 nontyphoidal S. enterica isolated from food animals and foodstuff. Nineteen isolates were chosen on the basis of their MDR and virulence for determination of heavy metal susceptibilities and screened by polymerase chain reaction for heavy metal resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on three isolates carrying clinically important AMR genes and the cdtB toxin gene to detect other heavy metal resistance mechanisms, and conjugation assays were performed to evaluate transfer of AMR/toxin genes with heavy metal resistance genes. AMR genotyping results showed isolates harbored between 1 and 12 mobile AMR genes, with 58% being classified as MDR. The tested subset of isolates showed reduced susceptibility to zinc (78%), copper (68%), silver (63%), arsenic (47%), and tellurite (26%); phenotypes that could be attributed to zitB (n = 32%), pcoA/pcoD (n = 32%), tcrB (n = 16%), arsB (n = 16%), silA/silE (n = 42%), and terF (n = 26%) genes. WGS confirmed the presence of other heavy metal resistance genes such as copA, cusA, and czcD. Isolates often harbored multiple heavy metal resistance genes. Two strains (Sal25 and Sal368) were able to conjugate with Escherichia coli J53 at a relatively high frequency (∼10-4 colony-forming units per recipient). Transformants selected in the presence of copper harbored either an IncHI2 (J53/Sal25 transconjugant) or IncF (J53/Sal368 transconjugant) plasmid with decreased susceptibilities to tellurite, zinc, copper, cobalt, arsenic, lead, mercury, and silver. blaCTX-M-1 and mcr-1 genes were also transferred to one transconjugant, and tet(M) and blaTEM-1 genes to the other. This work shows the presence of a diversity of AMR genes in this zoonotic pathogen, and suggests that heavy metals may contribute to selection of clinically important ones through the food chain, such as the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1.

Source

 

By |2018-12-01T17:30:46+00:00December 1st, 2018|

Leave A Comment

css.php