The development of phage engineering technology has led to the construction of a novel type of phage display library—a collection of nanofiber materials with diverse molecular landscapes accommodated on the surface of phage particles. These new nanomaterials, called the “landscape phage”, serve as a huge resource of diagnostic/detection probes and versatile construction materials for the preparation of phage-functionalized biosensors and phage-targeted nanomedicines. Landscape-phage-derived probes interact with biological threat agents and generate detectable signals as a part of robust and inexpensive molecular recognition interfaces introduced in mobile detection devices. The use of landscape-phage-based interfaces may greatly improve the sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and longevity of these devices. In another area of bioengineering, landscape-phage technology has facilitated the development and testing of targeted nanomedicines. The development of high-throughput phage selection methods resulted in the discovery of a variety of cancer cell-associated phages and phage proteins demonstrating natural proficiency to self-assemble into various drug- and gene-targeting nanovehicles. The application of this new “phage-programmed-nanomedicines” concept led to the development of a number of cancer cell-targeting nanomedicine platforms, which demonstrated anticancer efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This review was prepared to attract the attention of chemical scientists and bioengineers seeking to develop functionalized nanomaterials and use them in different areas of bioscience, medicine, and engineering. View Full-Text

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