Colistin has been used for therapy of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections in Thailand, especially carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, for more than 10 years. However, the prevalence of colistin-resistant A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa is still less than 5%. Colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has been increasingly reported globally over the past few years and the use of colistin in food animals might be associated with an emergence of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to determine the effect of colistin exposure in hospitalized patients who received colistin on development of colistin-resistant (CoR) Escherichia coli (EC) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) colonization and infection.
A prospective observational study was performed in adult hospitalized patients at Siriraj Hospital who received colistin for treatment of infections during December 2016 and November 2017. The surveillance culture samples were collected from the stool and the site of infection of each patient who received colistin at the study enrollment, days 3 and 7 after the study enrollment, and once a week thereafter for determination of CoR EC and CoR KP. CoR EC and CoR KP were also tested for a presence of mcr-1 gene.
One hundred thirty-nine patients were included. Overall prevalence of CoR EC or CoR KP colonization was 47.5% among 139 subjects. Prevalence of CoR EC or CoR KP colonization was 17.3% of subjects at study enrollment, and 30.2% after study enrollment. Use of fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and colistin was found to be significantly associated with CoR EC or CoR KP colonization. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 13.0% of CoR EC or CoR KP isolates, and in 27.3% of subjects with CoR EC or CoR KP colonization. CoR EC or CoR KP colonization persisted in 65.2% of the subjects at the end of the study. Five patients with CoR KP infections received combination antibiotics and they were alive at hospital discharge.